Cardio Thoracic Surgery

..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

What are the types of heart diseases?. 
What are the types congential heart diseases?
What are acyanotic heart diseases and when should they be operated?
What are cyanotic heart diseases and when should they be operated?
What is rheumatic heart diseases?
What are the artificial heart valves?
What is coronary artery diseases?
 
 

 
 
Q. What are the types of heart diseases? 
Ans. Heart diseases broadly fall in three categories, eg. Congential heart diseases, Rheumatic heart diseases, Coronary artery diseases.  

Q. What are the type of congential heart diseases?
Ans.
They are of two types e.g. cyanotic and acyanotic. In acyanotic variety, the child is pink like all of us. Whereas in cyanotic variety, the child is blue.

Q. What are acyanotic heart diseases and when should they be operated?
Ans. Common acyanotic heart diseases are generally 'holes' in the heart like PDA, ASD, VSD, AP window. These defects lead to increase blood flow to the lungs. If the defects are large, they need operation in the neonatal life. Otherwise, they should be operated by the age of two years.

Q. What are cyanotic heart diseases and when should they be operated?
Ans. In cyanotic heart disease, the patient is blue. Blood flow to the lungs is less. There is a big hole in the heart and the pulmonary valve is choked. If the anatomy is suitable for repair, intracardiac repair (open heart surgery) should be done by the age of two years. If anatomy is not suitable then palliatine BT shunt can be done.
 
 

Q. What is rheumatic heart diseases?
Ans.
Rheumatic heart disease is an aftermath of B-hemolytic streptococeal throat infection. If the sore throat infection is promptly treated, rheumatic heart diseases can be avoided. This disease is seen in socio-economically poor class of people.

Rheumatic heart disease affects heart valves. The valve can become stenotic, leaking or both. Mitral stenosis is a common valvular heart disease. If the valve is not severely damaged, it can be opened either by 'balloon' or operation.

Q. What are the artificial heart valves?
Ans. When the heart valves are not suitable for repair, they need to be replaced by artificial heart valves. The commonly used artificial heart valves are metallic heart valves. These valves are durable but they need life-long anticoagulation and thus proper monitoring.

Q. What is coronary artery diseases?
Ans. The arteries that supply blood to the heart itself are called coronary arteries. These arteries get chocked due to fatty deposition. These chocked arteries lead to reduce blood supply to the heart muscle leading to chest pain (angina pectosis). In severe cases, it leads to myocardial muscle death (heart attack).

These chocked arteries can be opened up with 'balloon' (PTCA). If that is not possible, then 'bypass' surgery is done.